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地点地位:湖南成考网 > 复习材料 > 学位英语 > 注释

湖南成人学士学位英语浏览懂得复习材料(三)

2019-04-20 09:36:07   来源:湖南成考网    点击:
作者:王师长教员
  【导读】湖南成考网为考生整顿2019年湖南成人学士学位英语浏览懂得复习材料。想要取得我省成考院校学士学位证书的考生需经过过程学位英语测验,建议考生提早备考在卒业前顺利经过过程测验。

  The first pre-election poll, or "straw vote", as it was then called, was conducted by the Harrisburg Pennsylvanian before the 1824 presidential election. This straw vote and the many that followed it really registered nothing but local opinion. However, as communications improved and elections were won by closer and closer margins, newspapers and journals tried desperately to satisfy their readers’ curiosity in more reliable ways.

  Before the 1928 elections, no fewer than eighty-five publications made private inquiries, generally by means of questionaires(问卷、查询拜访表)sent to subscribers(订户)and by telephone surveys. The principle common to all these inquiries was that they depended on quantity rather than quality; little effort was made to reach representatives of all segments(部分)of the population. Still, the erroneous belief persisted that the greater the number of questionaires, the more accurate the results would be. The record was held by the American monthly Literary Digest, which sent out millions of postcards with short and pointed questions before each election, and received many hundreds of thousands of replies. In fact, in 1932, the Literary Digest’s forecast was off by only 1 percent.

  In view of such striking achievements, it seemed rather impertinent(粗暴的)for the young American journalist, George Gallup,to claim that large numbers were irrelevant, and that equally accurate or better predictions could be made with a small but carefully selected sample of the population and a small team of skilled interviewers.

  In 1936, it took Gallup a long time to convince thirty-five newspaper editors that his system was much cheaper than the customary mass inquiries and that it could provide surprisingly accurate predictions. The editors finally agreed, on condition that if Gallup's predictions were less accurate than those obtained by the tried method of the Literary Digest, he would have to refund(补偿)the entire cost of the investigation. Although the Literary Digest broke its own record by obtaining two million replies to its electoral postcards that year, its prediction was wrong by 19 percent, whereas Gallup's was off by less than 1 percent.

  1.From the passage we know that the earlies pre-election polls were _____ in reflecting the public opinions.

  A. meaningful

  B. inaccurate

  C. satisfying

  D. successful

  答案B.文章第一段告诉我们,最后的选举前的平易近意测验反应的仅仅是处所性的、部分的看法,因而可知它们在反应平易近意方面是不敷精确的。

  2.All of the following are the characteristics of the inquiries are mentioned in the second paragraph except _____.

  A. a large number of questionaires were sent out

  B. quantity rather than quality was emphasized

  C. almost no effort was made to interview people from every walk of life

  D. every publication in America got involved

  答案D.从文章第二段可知,这些查询拜访合营的特点是重量不重质,缺点地认为收回去的问卷越多成果就越精确,并且查询拜访的对象缺乏广泛性。因而可知,A,B,C三项都是这些平易近意查询拜访的特点,而D项既不符合现实,也谈不上是甚么特点。

  3.We can infer from the passage that in the beginning the newspaper editors were _____ Gallup's system.

  A. doubtful of

  B. enthusiastic about

  C. displeased with

  D. indignant at

  答案A.由文章第四段可知,盖洛普花了很长时间才压服35位报纸编辑采取他的查询拜访办法。由此可断定,对他的办法编辑们起先是持困惑立场的。B项不符合现实,C项和D项在文中也找不到根据。

  4.We can infer from the passage that in the early 1930s _____.

  A. Gallup was a famous journalist

  B. the Literary Digest like to break records

  C. the Literary Digest was the biggest monthly in America

  D. the method of the Literary Digest was popular and well-received

  答案D.盖洛普当时只是个年青的记者,费了很大年夜的劲才压服他人采取他的查询拜访办法,所以A项是不精确的。文中固然两次提到《文摘》月刊保持和打破记载,但不克不及由此揣摸它爱好破记载,所以B项也不是精确答案。C项在文中找不到根据,所以也纰谬。只要D项是精确的推论,由于文章第二段的最后一句话告诉我们,《文摘》对1932年选举的猜想误差仅为百分之一,并且第四段又说编辑们给盖洛普提的条件是假设他的猜想不如《文摘》精确,他就得掏钱包袱全部查询拜访的费用,可见《文摘》采取的办法是为大年夜多半人所接收的。

  5.Gallup's system proved to be _____.

  A. much cheaper

  B. a great failure

  C. a huge success

  D. much costly

  答案C.看懂文章的最后一句便可肯定精确答案是C. whereas Gallup's was off by less than 1 percent意为“而盖洛普的猜想误差不到百分之一”。

注:详细内容及信息以湖南省教导招生测验院为准

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